Category Archives: Blueberries (Vaccinium)

Simultaneous determination of flavonols and phenolic acids by HPLCCoulArray in berries common in the Nordic diet

Ensieh Hajazimi (a), Rikard Landberg( a, b), Galia Zamaratskaia (a), Food Science and Technology 74 (2016) 128e134

(a) Department of Food Science, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden  (b) Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Insitutet, Stockholm, Sweden

This paper is a methods study testing a new method of detecting antioxidants in wild berries. Although the method information is interesting, of importance to us berry people is the verification that northern berries are endowed with very high levels of antioxidants, in this case flavonols and phenolic compounds even when the berries were  commercially store bought and frozen. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides)  topped the charts of highest flavonols, hydrobenzoic and hydrocinnamic acid compounds with lingonberry (Vaccinium vitas-idaea) and bilberry (V. myrtillus) not far behind. The cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus)  had less than half total phenolics of the other berries.  The phenolic compound found in greatest concentration in sea buckthorn was Isorhamnetin; in lingonberry,  quercetin; in bilberry – myricetin; and finally in cloudberry – gallic acid.

berry phenolocs


Wouldn’t it be great if these berries were available frozen in Alaska stores? For now, enjoy berry picking or purchasing fruit at your local farmers market in summer. The health benefits can be great (although you have to eat twice as many cloudberries as the other fruit)!

Using traditional ecological knowledge to understand and adapt to climate and biodiversity change on the Pacific Coast of North America

2019. Victoria Rawn Wyllie de Echeverria , Thomas F. Thornton  Ambio

2019. Wyllie de Echeverria, Thornton

The authors tackle one of the most complex issues in climate change science and ecology – how to include a human element in identifying change including traditional knowledge of plants and animals. How can human experiences, languages and traditions be used to verify change, and how can the importance of these traditions be included in ecological studies of climate change.  One main goal, of course,  is to identify ways indigenous people can maintain customary uses of their region, in this case, coastal areas in Southeast Alaska, while adapting to broader ecological changes that occur in an ecosystem.  Participants in a survey noted weather pattern shifts in their lifetime such as more snow, more rainfall, as well as shifts in the seasons. The researchers also examined language patterns to learn about traditional words used for weather or activities related to weather such as “foods being dried in the sun”. They indicated that changes in plant use in the region was most likely because of land use changes (logging, land development) rather than specific climate change.

One case study examined changes to salmonberry and blueberry species that are considered keystone species because they are used heavily by locals and have a long tradition of use. The authors tried to make connections between people’s recollections, historical knowledge and current practices compared to ecological knowledge of berry picking sites, yields, berry quality and more. I think back to some of the experiments in ecology I have been involved with over the years. They are so complex, it is difficult to isolate a single or even a handful of biological causes for a particular observation. For instance, there are so many reasons why berries might not appear in a season (frost during spring, drought, too much rain, poor soil nutrition, predation, and on and on. Recollections might be due to any or a combination of these factors. Attributing them to climate change is tricky and challenging. Human knowledge might just add to the evidence, but as climate scientists will agree, it takes many, many years and a lot of data points to begin to draw conclusions.


Ethnobotany of the Naukan speakers, Chukotka District, Russian Far East and Western Alaska


The attached link is an article written by Kevin Jernigan, Olga S. BelichenkoValeria B. Kolosova and Darlene J. Orr that compares uses of plants including berries from the past through elder recollections compared to present uses.  They also compared usage with communities in Nome and Kotzebue. Edible plant use has dropped overall from previous years (13%) but the awareness of medicinal uses has skyrocketed (+225%) no doubt because of the interest in antioxidants and other bioactive components. I completed a similar project in the mid 1990s in Ft. Yukon, Alaska and found about a 20% drop in native plant uses, but my project was before all the interest in antioxidants. 

Some of the plants whose use had actually increased include: wild chives (Allium schoenoprasum), tilsey sage (Artemisia tilesii), crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), river beauty (Epilobium (Camerion) latifolium, mountain sorrel (Oxyria digyna), sour dock, (Rumex arcticus), and cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus). The plant locally called stinkweed or tilsey sage is interesting because I found it mentioned in nearly every ethnobotanical reference written in Alaska. It has extensive medicinal uses throughout the state and now the Russian Far East. All the berries mentioned are also the most popular berries harvested in northern Alaska. The berry with the greatest increase in uses from the past is mesutaq better known as masru, lingonberry or low bush cranberry. No surprise there!


Healthy Northern Berries Improve Glucose Utilization

This study from Norway centered around glucose control in the liver. The researchers studied the pathways of glucose uptake and described the enzymes used in the final steps of carbohydrate digestion as alpha-amylase and alpha glucosidase. Any chemical that inhibits these enzymes will slow glucose uptake in the liver and be a benefit to anyone dealing with type 2 diabetes. They studies a lot of berries (bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa), black currants (Ribes nigrum),  bog whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), Elderberry (Sambucus nigra), Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitas-idaea), raspberry (Rubus idaeus), red currant (Ribes rubric), rowan berries (mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia), and sea buckthorn (Hippophae (Elaeagnus) rhamnoides). The phenolic compounds in all the berries inhibited response the enzymes that promote glucose uptake. Some berries had other chemicals that actually promoted glucose uptake: mountain ash and bilberry being the highest. The berries with the most powerful inhibitors were crowberry, cloudberry, bog whortleberry (bog blueberry), and lingonberry with crowberry being ranked number 1!


Documenting Change in Nunavut

Here is a thesis that explores climate change through berries near Kugluktuk, Nunavut, Canada. The program is part citizen science as well as documenting the ethnobotany of the region. It includes great summaries of the most important berries and even some recipes!


Cornell Berry Diagnostics

The Cornell Cooperative Extensions Berry Diagnostic Tool is an excellent resource for anyone growing or interested in strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, currants, and gooseberries. This online tool allows anyone to select a berry crop and then from a variety of descriptions of plant growth issues, deformities, discolorations, damage, or other indicator that occurs on the whole plant, flower, fruit, or vegetative to continue to diagnose the issue. Lots of photographs and links to in depth articles are included about many diagnoses to really get to the “root” of the issue. Finally, recommendations for management of the issue can be selected after referring to the images and descriptions
Citation: Cornell Cooperative Extension. 2016. Cornell Fruit Berry Diagnostic Tool. Available online: Diagnosis. Accessed: 12 October 201

Fruit Soups

Fruit Soup Recipe

2 cups dry red wine 1 cup water ; 2/3 cup sugar ; 2 whole star anise ; 2 cinnamon sticks; 1 (12-ounce) basket fresh strawberries, hulled, sliced;  1 (6-ounce) basket fresh raspberries;  1 (4.4-ounce) basket fresh blueberries;  1 pint vanilla bean gelato or ice cream

Directions: Combine the wine, water, sugar, star anise, and cinnamon sticks in a heavy large saucepan. Add all but 1/2 cup of each of the berries. Bring the liquids to a simmer over medium-high heat. Reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer gently until the fruit is very tender, about 10 minutes. Cool slightly. Discard the star anise and cinnamon sticks. Transfer the berry mixture to a blender and puree until smooth. Strain the soup through a fine mesh strainer and into a medium bowl. Cover and refrigerate until very cold, stirring occasionally, at least 8 hours and up to 1 day ahead. Cut the reserved strawberries into small pieces. Place a small scoop of vanilla bean gelato or ice cream in the center of 8 decorative dessert glasses or soup bowls. Divide the mixed berry soup among the glasses, being careful to pour around the gelato. Sprinkle the reserved berries over the soup and serve immediately. Thank you to Giada De Laurentiis for a delicious mixed berry soup with gelato recipe. Doing research on berry information is when I learned that people really do make soup from berries. You can heat it up and use it as a topping or throw some whipped cream on it for a cold topping. Sounds delicious!   AK Fairbanks

Bog Blueberries for Health

“Bog Blueberry anthocyanins alleviate photo-aging in UV B irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblasts.”

The fruits of the bog blueberry plant are rich in anthocyanins that contribute pigmentation and the relief/prevention of several chronic diseases. Several studies show bog blueberries remarkably suppress collagen degradation as well as inflammatory response in the skin cells which allow for connective tissue and healing/recovery after injury. The edible berry shows proof it can be protective against skin damage!
Bae, J.-Y., Choi, J.-S., Han, S.J., Ju, S.M., Kang, I.-J., Kang, Y.-H., Kim, S.J., Lim, S.S., Park, J. 2009. “Bog Blueberry Anthocyanins Alleviate Photo-Aging in Ultra-Violet B Irradiation-Induced Human Dermal Fibroblasts.” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 53(6): 726-738.

Blueberry Swirl Cheesecake

Every year around October my church conducts a pie auction fundraiser. While this isn’t exactly a pie, it still sold for over $100, which means you can take the whole thing home! You won’t want to share! This recipe is taken from the Taste of Home Annual Cookbook, 2003 Edition. CM Fairbanks
Blueberry Swirl Cheesecake
1 packaged (12 ounces) frozen blueberries, thawed
1 tablespoon sugar
1 tablespoon water
1-1/2 teaspoons cornstarch
1-1/4 cups graham cracker crumbs
¼ cup sugar
1/3 cup butter or margarine, melted
3 packages (8 ounces each) cream cheese, softened
1 can (14 ounces) sweetened condensed milk
3 eggs
¼ cup lemon juice
In a food processor or blender, process the blueberries, sugar, water and cornstarch until blended. Transfer to a heavy saucepan; bring to a boil. Reduce heat; cook and stir over medium heat for 2 minutes or until thickened. Set aside 6 tablespoons for filling. Refrigerate the remaining sauce for topping. Combine crust ingredients. Press onto the bottom of a greased 9-in. springform pan; set aside. In a mixing bowl, beat the cream cheese and milk until smooth. Add eggs; beat on low just until combined. Add lemon juice; beat just until blended. Pour half of the filling over crust; top with half of the reserved blueberry sauce. Repeat layers. Cut through filling with a knife to swirl blueberry sauce. Place pan on a baking sheet.

Blueberry variation

Learning about how much variation there is in bog blueberries in Dr. Pat Holloway’s class makes me realize that perhaps that is partly why I’m attracted to them. If each bush and cluster of berries were the same, it wouldn’t be nearly as exciting to pick blueberries. For instance, bunchberries, while also not quite as tasty, they don’t seem to have near the variability of blueberries. All the plants are about as high, and the berries seem to be very similar in size. HR Fairbanks

MARTA HEACOCK The Landscape of Red Huckleberry and Fireweed Syrup

 This story appeared first in Alaska Women Speak  journal  24(3):11. Fall 2016  (   and is reprinted by permission of the author. Marta lives and writes from a small village located in the southern portion of Alaska’s Alexander Archipelago. She owns a salmon cannery with her son and shares her. home with a Pomeranian and a tabby cat. 

Red huckleberries sparkle through the deep woods in glints of orange and near-red. As rain forest understory plants, they scramble under the great coniferous trees of the Tongass. In spring, the plants are covered in light gold to pale pink blossoms. The young berries shine with the pale orange of a rain forest sunset in May.

When they’re at their peak of ripeness, the berries are the color of sockeye eggs. Red huckleberries are feral plants that don’t respond well to attempts at commercial cultivation, though Indigenous peoples have long used them for a variety of purposes. They can be eaten fresh, dried, preserved, fermented, made into syrups and sauces, or combined with salmon eggs and seal oil to create a delicacy for winter feasts. They’re sometimes used as bait in place of salmon eggs.

Red huckleberries are tart. Some people find them too tangy to be eaten raw, while others love the way they pop right inside their mouths with little explosions of juice. They get their tang from the highly acidic, rich rain forest soils in which they thrive. As with all berries, they become sweeter with age, so if you don’t like the acid tang, look for the larger berries that are more red than orange.

Get the berries in the middle of the summer from the woods. If you follow a small salmon spawning creek long enough, you’ll come to a patch of red huckleberries. Be sure to go with friends, and sing your songs and tell your stories to let the bears know you’re there so they can sink into the woods. Bring the berries home and roll them through your hands on a flat surface to remove the stems, and shake them in a sieve so the stems fall through.

The red huckleberries were ripe this year just when the fi.reweed was at its brightest. Fireweed grows in meadows around the edges of the forest, by the side of the road, and generally everywhere and anywhere where there’s an extra patch of dirt that’s not already being used, as long as it gets a reasonable amount of sun. Beekeepers meadows to get delicate fireweed honey. Beekeepers often place hives in the middle of vast fireweed meadows to get delicate fireweed honey.

Even though you won’t find fireweed growing in the deep forest alongside the wild red huckleberries, the two combine to create a flavor palette that captures the taste of the Tongass. Fireweed honey is soft and sweet, providing the perfect foil for the impudent tang of the red huckleberries. You can mix red huckleberries with fireweed honey to make syrup for pancakes, French toast, to use as ice cream toppings or to make craft cocktails .

. . . a flavor palette that captures the taste of the Tongass. 

First, heat the berries over a low flame with a little water. The berries need to soften so they can be properly mashed, and then strain them for the juice. Add fi.reweed honey to the juice, bring to a boil, and simmer until reduced by about half or when the mixture begins to stick to a wooden spoon.

If your berries came from a patch growing on and near rotting logs, their acidic bite may be more pronounced, so you’ll need to add more honey. The same thing applies if you were impatient for your huckleberries and picked them before they were quite ripe. Keep adding honey a little at a time until you find your personal sweet spot. Some people like to add a squeeze or two of fresh lemon juice, but a bit of orange juice actually works better with this particular flavor profile because it’s not so tart. You might think about a fast dash of cinnamon and teardrop-sized splash of real vanilla

The syrup can be used right away, but letting it sit for a week or tvvo ensures that the flavors mix and settle. Even though you might be tempted to use it all, try to save some for late fall and winter when the storms are at their worst and the days are dark and gloomy. Few things are better the morning after a Southeastern Alaska storm than sourdough pancakes drizzled with a taste of the Tongass summer.

Blueberry Trials in Kenai

This is a good article summarizing project to compare effects of location and cultivar of three northern highbush and six half-high blueberry cultivars on survivability, fall dieback, winter injury, fruit yield and weight at two locations on the Kenai Peninsula. Results suggested ‘Northblue’ as the most promising cultivar followed by ‘Northcountry’, ‘Northsky’, and ‘Polaris’.  Unfortunately this project was discontinued due to shrinking budgets after the first year of fruit production.  CZ Anchorage

Citation: Barney, D.L. and K. E. Hummer. 2012. Northern High Bush and Half-High Blueberries on the Alaskan Kenai Peninsula: Preliminary Observations. Journal of the American Pomological Society 66(3): 145-152.

Available online:


Going Back to Our Roots

While berry pickers use a variety of methods and recipes to consume their harvest in the modern world, I have often wondered how the Native Americans originally used these superfoods to supplement their diet. Berries played an important role in the society of the indigenous peoples and later turned to help the Europeans who settled in various areas survive the winter. Kim E. Hummer looked at various soil samples from different regions of the United States in order to determine what plants could have been found during that period in history. There is documented use of huckleberries and blueberries, and Hummer explains it further. Early explorers survived on berries throughout their expeditions. Refer to Hummer’s article for more information.
Hummer, K. E. 2013. Manna in Winter: Indigenous Americans, huckleberries, and blueberries. Hort Science 48(4):413-417

Blueberry banana bread

BBBB! This link  goes to a blueberry banana bread recipe. My mom just made fresh banana bread with the blueberries I picked this past fall. She added nuts as well. Something I like to do is heat up a slice in the microwave for about 10 seconds and put some butter on top, the berries taste sweeter and it taste like it just came out of the oven, fresh and moist. Just another example of how we use berries in our lives.

Hardiness stages of blueberries

This link with nice photos of different growth stages of a blueberry plant.   What I find interesting is the different cold tolerances of the different stages, which as mentioned in this class, is an important consideration when predicting fruit production from our plants.  For example, flower bud swell can tolerate 10-15F, while flower bud break is tolerant to about 20F, full bloom to 28F and petal fall (while fruit is developing) only 32F.  This shows how vulnerable late developmental stages can be and how a cold snap late in the season could be detrimental to the fruit crop.

Note that this site talks about highbush blueberries and not our native bog blueberry, Vaccinium uliginosum, in Interior Alaska.  I need to do more searching to find the critical temperatures for V. uliginosum! However, I think that these photos of bud stages and listed critical temps are helpful reminders that not all stages or parts of a plant have the same temperature tolerances.  The plant is growing, developing and changing and as managers, one would need to be attentive to these changes.

Blueberry hardiness

Pruning blueberries

The links below compare pruning techniques between highbush and lowbush blueberries. Although I assume most of us are not interested in growing highbush blueberries, I still think it is an interesting comparison. The first link is a video bythe University of Maine on how to prune highbush blueberries on a blueberry farm. I like that he points out how to looks for vegetative vs. fruiting buds and which branches to prune out to improve fruit quantity and quality. In the video a loppers is used to prune the bushes. The second link is a publication, also by the University of Maine, about pruning lowbush blueberry fields. The techniques suggested here are thermal pruning (eg burning) and mowing, which is quite a different approach! The timing of pruning is the same for both, which is during plant dormancy- late fall after a hard frost, during winter or early spring before bud break. KMD Fairbanks

Pruning Blueberries

Blueberries in the lower 48

Here is a video of farmed blueberries from harvest to table. This is an interesting video because it brings to life the concept of big farming for something I simply go out a pick. I find that store bought blueberries, like most fruits and vegies shipped to Alaska just don’t have the flavor that fresh does, but while watching this video and all the plump blues on the conveyor belt had my mouth watering. There is a small part in the video that tells us a little about which states produce the most farmed blueberries. I wonder how Alaskan wild berry stands would compare to the commercial berry farms. Either way, I prefer the serenity as well as the taste that goes with hand harvesting wild berry stands rather than the “run of the mill” farmed berries.


Blueberries From Farm to Table. 2011. Blueberries. Available online: Accessed 28 Sept. 2016.

Bog Blueberries, wild and cultivated

This article by author Heidi Rader is about the low bush or bog blueberry. She covers her method of picking, which is by hand, in contrast to picking with a berry picker. The pros and cons of both were interesting to think about as I had never considered how aggressive a berry picker might be toward the fruit. This article also gives out come Blueberry cultivation tips and hints for success. Rader, H. 2016. The berry best: An Alaska blueberry primer. Available Online: Blueberries.  Accessed on 28 Sep 2016.  

From the bog to the box

From the Bog to the Box

I have two acres of land just north of Fairbanks that I am currently in the process of building a home and planning a landscape on. When I think about what I want my yard to be like I think about what I want to do in my yard. I’d like to walk through the trees, enjoy the song birds and of course have an aesthetically appealing landscape. But to me the stimulation from the landscape needs to be more than simply looking pretty, I want there to be good functionality in my yard. I want pretty flowers, but I’d like them to be simple, natural and perennial. I’d also like to be able to harvest edibles from my landscape and not just from my garden and green house. These reasons along with others are why I want to manage the wild berry stands I currently have growing as well as adding a few transplants. The berry I am most interested in transplanting and managing is the Bog Blueberry.

Unconventionally I am most interested in the idea of transplanting wild bog blueberries into low but still raised garden beds that would line my driveway and possibly other pathways around the property. Although we do not currently have the house finished, I think that next summer would be the best time to begin transplanting blueberries into the driveway in order to possibly have berry production by the time we are finished with the house and I will have more time to focus on other areas of the landscape. That way, I will have a few years of experience with these before deciding what to do with the rest of the space.

I think that raised garden beds or boxes would be good for experimenting with berries because I will have complete control over the soil composition and watering/irrigating processes and this will give me more detailed information on what is and isn’t working. At the same time though, I think I will also transplant some bog blueberries into the cleared powerline on the opposite side of my property just to be able to compare notes on the original source, and both transplanted sources, completely controlled vs. simply transplanted and observed. Some key things for me to keep in mind about transplanting and box gardening are soil preferences (nutrients, water absorption and irrigation, pH levels), available sunlight, preferred pollinators, and nearby plant species.

Blueberry soil preferences: Blueberries tend to require an acidic soil composition with pH levels of 4.5-5.5. Some berries secrete root acids to help bring iron and other nutrients into a solution they can absorb but blueberries do not secrete these acids and thus they rely on organisms that thrive in acidic soils to help convert nutrients for them. Bog blueberries can thrive in a variety of moisture conditions from highly aerated to poorly drained soils, and often grow in mat layers with roots in shallow but wide areas. Loamy or peaty soil compositions are good for blueberries and adequate watering is a must. Do not let the roots dry out, while also not drowning them. Because I want to build raised beds or boxes for my blueberries I will have complete control over what I make my soils with and I plan to try to use natural loamy soils and peat from local bogs.

Sunlight: Blueberries do well in sunlight areas, often much better than in shade. Because most of my property is undeveloped I think the edges of the driveways will produce sufficient amounts of sunlight without too much heat.

Pollinators: I have a variety of pollinators that live in the nearby woods and am happy to say that there seem to be an abundance of bees in my neighborhood. Another reason my driveways will be a good place to start is because both neighbors on either side of me have bee boxes near us. Honey bees, bumble bees, hornets and a variety of other pollinators are attracted to the wild currants, raspberries and rose hips already growing here so I do not think I will have a lacking of good pollinators. Possibly Ill even be able to trade blueberry jams for honey…

Native plant species: Although I have a diverse collection of other berries, trees, bushes and some wild flowers, I do not think these native species will be of much concern for the blueberries because of the raised beds. I will have to keep up on weeding and pruning, but I do not have any super invasive species other than the raspberries that are spreading themselves about each year (I don’t mind that at all).

I do have a lot of work ahead of me in building the ideal beds that will contain but not limit blueberry growth as well as the effort in creating good balanced soil, and transplanting berries adequately, but I look forward to the experimenting I will be doing for the rest of the foreseeable future. LH Fairbanks


Matthews, R. F. 1992 Vaccinium uliginosum. In: Fire Effects Information System. U.S. Department of Agrictulture, Forest Service. Available online: Accessed 28 Sept. 2016.

-This is a very technical resource with a lot of valuable information although some of which must be filtered through. Lots of scientific data, but still a useful source I find myself going back to.

Townsend, M. 2005. The Basics of Blueberry Culture. Home Orchard Society. Available online: Accessed 27 Sept. 2016.

-This article was presented as a handout for the talk “History and Cultivation of Blueberries” by Marie Townsend at the Home Orchards Society’s 2005 All about Fruit Show. It is simple to follow and full of good information. Not all information is specifically for the bog blueberry, but still has good tips and ideas to get started.

9/28/16 10:45 PM

I know you have lots of experience with blueberries, transplanting and edible landscapes, I look forward to learning more about this from you.

Is it a blueberry or huckleberry?

 I recently visited Washington state and had the opportunity to go to Mt. Baker and pick huckleberries! ….or were they blueberries? If I were to be placed in this field of wild berries out of context, I would have without hesitation called them blueberries. I might add that our local tour guide and friend referred to them as “huckleberries”. She was born and raised in Montana, which leads to even more interesting facts about huckleberries. I have also lived in Montana and while living there I learned that huckleberries are considered to be very, very special. Any tourist shop will have huckleberry jams, jellies and other treats. Montanans are so proud of this berry that the state has made it a misdemeanor to label a product huckleberry if it contains any other fruit ( All of this huckleberry/blueberry confusion led to more questioning and searching the internet for the difference between these two common names. I think that we gathered and gorged on Vaccinium delisiosum (Cascade Blueberry or Western Huckleberry), but I am still not positive. Whatever they were they were delisioso!
Here are a few things that I have gleaned from a little searching:
      The common name ‘huckleberry’ includes two different genera (with the exception of next bullet), Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, both in the Ericaceace family
     According to the USDA Plants Database, there are 14 plants with the common name of ‘huckleberry’ to include not only Gaylussacia (8 species) and Vaccinium (4 species) but also Solanum (spp: melanocerasum and scabrum)
     Fruits of Gaylussacia have 10 chambers resulting in 10 large seeds, whereas Vaccinium have 5 chambers and many numerous and smaller seeds
     According to the USDA Plants Database, there are 8 species of Gaylussacia, all east of the Rocky Mountains.
     Blueberries have been domesticated, while huckleberries have not. Check out the following blogs for more adventures in differentiating these berries:  KD Fairbanks
Barney, Danny. L. 1999. Growing Western Huckleberries. Available online: Huckleberries
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2016. Plants Database. Available online: Plants Database